The interdisciplinary approach of the COMFORT project is visible in the coherent loop presented in this figure. This loop consists of 4 Core Themes (CTs) that correspond to the 4 specific objectives of the project. There are 10 Work Packages (WPs) within the project, and each of them belongs to one of the CT.



CT1: Abrupt climate change, tipping elements, and tipping points

CT1 provides the physical basis in that it aims to identify and quantify tipping elements and to determine how the relevant state variable are changing in time and space around these critical points.

CT2: Impacts and safe operating spaces

CT2 delivers the information on impacts resulting from tipping element evolution (as delivered in CT1) and lays out safe operating spaces.

CT3: Mitigations and projections

CT3 analyses potential mitigation actions for staying within the safe operating spaces (as determined in CT2) and suggests “safe” scenarios which are tested in respective model projections.

CT4: Cross cutting issues

CT4 finally ensures that the results are used in an interoperable way, discuss them with stakeholders, communicates the results, and provides technical support to the consortium.


The CT structure resembles the working group structure of IPCC and additionally integrates stakeholder engagement. CT1
and CT3 are linked through the Earth system model (ESM) projections. The methods used in CT1 are applicable also for the mitigation projections as carried out in CT3 to check avoidance of tipping points in the revised mitigation scenarios. The results of CT1 also feed directly into CT2 through the provision of appropriate forcing to the impact models. CT2 then serves as input for the mitigation work in CT3. Though the main project workflow will be realised through the loop pattern as outlined in the figure, there will also be continuous network type message-passing between the various WPs.