COMFORT EU project


COMFORT is a Research and Innovation Action project funded under the Horizon 2020 Societal Challenges programme of the European Union.

COMFORT will close knowledge gaps for key ocean tipping elements within the Earth system under anthropogenic physical and chemical climate forcing through a coherent interdisciplinary research approach. It aims to provide added value to decision and policy makers in terms of science based safe marine operating spaces, refined climate mitigation targets, and feasible long-term mitigation pathways. The project focuses on the triple threat of (1) warming, (2) deoxygenation, and (3) ocean acidification, and how to optimally deal with this threat. Links to other Earth system reservoirs will be included in the assessment where relevant.

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COMFORT officially ended on the 31.Aug.2023. COMFORT has successfully reached all 22 Milestones and achieved 41 Deliverables. Although the project ended, living documents (PEDR and DMP), as well as the Continuous Reporting and the project Official Website will be still maintained and updated. Find below the Bibliometric Analyses indicating the academic performance of the project updated on 01.Sep.2023.


For any further information or enquiries contact the project manager, Juliano Ramanantsoa, at




Top high cited papers acknowledging COMFORT project (Updated on 13 Sep 2023; SCOPUS database)

       408 Citations                      239 Citations                          112 Citations 






 Workshop on marine tipping points and extreme events organized by COMFORT and TiPACCs

Science-to-policy talk on "Tipping points in the Earth's Climate" by Nicolas Gruber and Thomas Frölicher

Christoph Heinze's interview by Radio EcoShock on Three Hidden Ocean Tipping Points


Christoph Heinze's presentation as part of the discussion series aims to advance the knowledge about tipping elements, irreversibility, and abrupt changes in the Earth system by the World climate Research Programme